Medical Policy



Subject: Intraocular Anterior Segment Aqueous Drainage Devices (without extraocular reservoir)
Document #: SURG.00103 Current Effective Date:    07/01/2017
Status: Revised Last Review Date:    02/02/2017

Description/Scope

This document addresses surgical devices used in the treatment of refractory open-angle glaucoma (OAG) to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP). Intraocular anterior segment aqueous drainage devices include the Ex-PRESS® Glaucoma Filtration Device, previously known as the Ex-PRESS™ Mini Glaucoma Shunt (Alacon® , Irvine, CA), the iStent Trabecular Micro-Bypass Stent (Glaukos® Corp., Laguna Hills, CA), the CyPass® Micro-Stent system (Alcon Laboratories Inc., Fort Worth, TX) and the XEN® Glaucoma Treatment System (Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA).

Note: For information about other proposed surgical procedures for treatment of glaucoma see:

Position Statement

Medically Necessary:

Insertion of U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Ex-PRESS Glaucoma Filtration Device is considered medically necessary for the treatment of refractory open-angle glaucoma (primary and secondary) when medication therapies have failed to control intraocular pressure.

Implantation of U.S. FDA approved microstent (that is, CyPass System and iStent Trabecular Micro-Bypass Stent system) in conjunction with cataract surgery is considered medically necessary as a treatment to reduce intraocular pressure in adults with mild to moderate open-angle glaucoma where medical therapies have failed to adequately control intraocular pressure. 

Investigational and Not Medically Necessary:

The Ex-PRESS Glaucoma Filtration Device, CyPass System and iStent Trabecular Micro-Bypass Stent are considered investigational and not medically necessary for all other indications not listed above as medically necessary.

Anterior segment aqueous drainage devices inserted internally or externally without an extraocular reservoir (other than the Ex-PRESS Glaucoma Filtration Device, the CyPass System and the iStent Trabecular Micro-Bypass Stent) including the XEN Glaucoma Treatment System are considered investigational and not medically necessary as a method to reduce intraocular pressure for the treatment of glaucoma.

Rationale

Surgical intervention is indicated in the management of glaucoma when medication therapies have failed to adequately reduce intraocular pressure (IOP). Surgical procedures to which alternatives have been compared include trabeculectomy and cataract surgery. A trabeculectomy procedure creates a conjunctival reservoir or "filtering bleb" which reduces IOP by allowing aqueous humor to enter the subconjunctival space. Cataract surgery is also used to lower the IOP compared with the presurgical baseline. Resistance to the flow of aqueous fluid through the trabecular meshwork to Schlemm's canal is the primary mechanism that results in the development of elevated IOP and causes open-angle glaucoma. Devices to overcome this resistance and deliver aqueous fluid directly into the outflow system can result in lowering the intraocular pressure.

The American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) Preferred Practice Pattern® on Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (2015) provides recommendations for screening for primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and the management of IOP:

There are three main approaches to screening patients for PAOG; measuring the IOP, assessing the optic nerve head and retinal nerve fiber layer, and evaluating the visual field, either alone or in combination.

When deciding to treat a glaucoma suspect patient, it is important to remember that the goal of treatment is to maintain the IOP in a range at which visual field loss is likely to significantly reduce a patient's health-related quality of life over his or her lifetime. The estimated upper limit of this range is considered the target pressure. The initial target pressure is an estimate and a means toward the ultimate goal of protecting the patient's vision. The target pressure should be individualized and may need adjustment further down or even up during the course of the disease.

Ex-PRESS Glaucoma Filtration Device, formerly known as Ex-PRESS™ Mini Glaucoma Shunt: 

Maris and colleagues (2007) evaluated the Ex-PRESS implant in a single-center, retrospective, comparative study of 50 eyes in 49 subjects treated with the Ex-PRESS shunt and compared their outcomes with 50 matched control eyes in 47 subjects treated with trabeculectomy. Success was defined as intraocular pressure (IOP) greater than or equal to 5 mmHg and less than or equal to 20 mmHg with or without glaucoma medications, without further glaucoma surgery or removal of the implant. Average follow-up was 10.8 months (3.5-18) for the Ex-PRESS group and 11.2 months (3-15) for the trabeculectomy group. Although the mean IOP was higher in the early postoperative period in the Ex-PRESS group, the reduction of IOP was similar in both groups after 3 months. The number of postoperative glaucoma medications was similar in both groups, and Kaplan-Meier survival cure analysis showed no significant difference in successful outcome between the two groups (p=0.59). However, postoperative hypotony and choroidal effusion were more frequent after trabeculectomy. This study was limited by its nonrandomized retrospective design and follow-up limited to less than 1 year.

A study by de Jong (2009) reported the results of a prospective, randomized trial of the Ex-PRESS mini implant. Seventy-eight subjects (80 eyes) with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) were enrolled and randomized to either Ex-PRESS implantation under a scleral flap or trabeculectomy. Primary outcome measures were mean IOP, postoperative medication use, visual acuity, and incidence of complications. Complete success was defined as an IOP greater than 4 mmHg and less than 18 mmHg without the use of antiglaucoma medications. Postoperatively, 85% of individuals receiving the Ex-PRESS and 60% of individuals receiving trabeculectomy (p=0.0230) achieved complete success. At 1 year follow-up, complete success rates were 82% for Ex-PRESS and 47.5% for trabeculectomy (p=0.0020). Postoperative complications were similar in both groups. Although well designed, this single center trial limited measure of treatment durability to 1 year. At the present time, available evidence demonstrates the safety and efficacy of the Ex-PRESS Mini Glaucoma Shunt device for the treatment of open-angle glaucoma refractory to conventional medical management.

In 2011 de Jong and colleagues reported 5-year outcomes of the original randomized trial which compared Ex-PRESS implantation to trabeculectomy in participants with POAG. The authors concluded:

The Ex-PRESS glaucoma filtration device controlled intraocular pressure more effectively without medication for more patients from year 1 (86.8% versus 61.5%, P=0.01) to year 3 (66.7 versus 41.0%, P=0.02) than trabeculectomy. At year 1, only 12.8% of patients required intraocular pressure medications after Ex-PRESS implantation, compared with 35.9% after trabeculectomy. The proportions became closer at year 5 (41% versus 53.9%). The responder rate was higher with Ex-PRESS and time to failure was longer. In addition, surgical interventions for complications were fewer after Ex-PRESS implantation.

The AAO preferred practice pattern on primary open-angle glaucoma (2015) indicated that:

Retrospective studies and randomized clinical trials have reported similar IOP reduction and surgical success rates with trabeculectomy and Ex-PRESS. Several studies comparing Ex-PRESS with trabeculectomy found no significant differences in the rates of intraoperative and postoperative complications, but others have reported a higher incidence of early hypotony following trabeculectomy.

iStent Trabecular Micro-Bypass Stent:

The iStent Trabecular Micro-Bypass Stent device is an anterior segment drainage device without an extraocular reservoir. It is a small (1 mm x 0.5 mm) L-shaped titanium device that is inserted using an internal approach into the trabeculum through the cornea creating a bypass between the anterior chamber and Schlemm's canal. Aqueous fluid flows directly into the canal toward the episcleral drainage system. This device is designed to lower IOP without the formation of a filtering bleb. The iStent is the first microstent device to receive U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for use in combination with cataract surgery to reduce pressure inside the eye in adults with mild or moderate OAG and a cataract that are currently being treated with medication to reduce IOP. The device approval was based on results from the iStent investigational device exemption (IDE) open-label multicenter randomized study reported to the FDA in 2010, with follow-up results reported at 12 months and 24 months. The objective of the trial was to measure the incremental effect on IOP from iStent implantation over that of cataract surgery alone and to determine the potential benefit of combining two therapeutic treatments into one surgical event. The study included 240 eyes in 239 participants with mild to moderate OAG with IOP less than or equal to 24 mmHg controlled on 1 to 3 medications. Participants were required to have IOP of ≥ 22 mmHg and ≤ 36 mmHg after washout period of ocular hypotensive medications. At 1 year, 72% of subjects in the treatment group (cataract surgery in conjunction with iStent) achieved study target IOP of 21 mmHg or lower without use of eye-pressure-lowering medications compared to 50% of the control group (difference 90% confidence interval [CI], p<0.001) who underwent cataract surgery alone. At 1 year, 66% of eyes in the treatment group and 48% of eyes in the control group achieved the secondary efficacy endpoint of an IOP reduction of 20% or more versus baseline IOP without medication (difference 90% CI) (p=0.003). Authors reported safety results for the recent study and concluded that the iStent did not result in increased additional risk or adverse events (Samuelson, 2011). Although this study provides promising initial results for the iStent Trabecular Micro-Bypass stent and suggests it may be able to decrease IOP in individuals with mild to moderate OAG without use of medication for pressure management, intraocular medication can also be used to effectively maintain IOP ≤ 21 mmHg for the treatment of mild and moderate glaucoma.

In 2010, Fea reported results from a small prospective open-label clinical trial, with 36 participants randomized 2:1 to cataract surgery (control group [n=24]) or cataract surgery with iStent implantation (combined group [n=12]). The primary outcomes were IOP and reduction in medication use over 15 months and IOP after a 1-month washout with ocular hypotensive agents. The mean IOP was 15.7 ± 1.1 mmHg in the control group and 14.8 ± 1.2 mmHg in the combined group at 15 months, and IOP after washout period 19.2 ± 3.5 mmHg in the control group and 16.6 ± 3.1 mmHg in the combined group. The mean number of medications in the control group was 1.3 ± 1.0 and 0.4 ± 0.7 for the combined group (p=0.007); the proportion of participants on ocular hypotensive medications was 76% and 33%, respectively. The study was limited by small sample size and limited follow up. Additionally, the study measured IOP using a Goldmann tonometer calibrated in 2 mm segments with readings in between estimated and subject to rounding error. In 2015, Fea and colleagues reported results of the 4 year long-term follow-up; the authors concluded that "patients in the combination group maintained low IOP levels after long-term follow-up. Cataract surgery alone showed a loss of efficacy in controlled IOP over time. Both treatments reduced the number of ocular hypotensive medications prescribed."

Craven and colleagues (2012) reported additional results from the same pivotal iStent study. The primary efficacy endpoint was target IOP 21 mmHg or less without ocular hypertensive medication at 12 months, and secondary efficacy endpoint was an IOP reduction of 20% or more versus baseline IOP without medications at 12 months. "The mean IOP was 17.0 ± 2.8 mmHg on a mean of 0.2 ± 0.6 medications in the stent group and 17.0 ± 3.1 mm Hg on a mean of 0.4 ± 0.7 medications in the control group." At 24 months, the IOP ≤ 21 with medications target was reached in 61% of eyes in the treatment group (cataract surgery in conjunction with iStent) compared to 50% in the control group (p=0.036) (difference 90% CI). The secondary outcome of IOP reduction of 20% or more without medications was 53% in the treatment group versus 44% in the control group (p=0.09) (difference 90% CI). The mean number of medications used (0.3 vs. 0.5) in individuals with mild to moderate OAG were no longer significantly different between the iStent group and control group at 2 years. The IOP measurements were essentially identical in terms of the risk of progression of disease. While there are statistical differences in the 1-year and 2-year outcomes for individuals with mild to moderate OAG with an iStent compared to cataract surgery alone, the durability and clinical significance of these results remain uncertain. In addition, the iStent group required additional surgical procedures and it is unclear whether further procedures will be required after 2 years. Based on these concerns, additional studies with long term follow-up are required to determine the clinical significance of the differences reported, the durability of those differences and whether net health outcomes are improved by using the iStent device.

Arriola-Villalobos and colleagues (2013) published the findings of a small prospective case series study of the iStent device used in conjunction with cataract surgery. This study involved 20 subjects with either POAG (n=8), ocular hypertension (n=8), or pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (n=4). The authors report that IOP was significantly reduced from 19.95 ± 3.07 mmHg preoperatively to 16.75 ± 2.24 mmHg at 1 year follow-up (p<0.001). A significant decrease in the use of glaucoma medications was also noted (p<0.001). No visual acuity loss was reported. Another small case series study was described by Patel in 2013. This study included 44 subjects with pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (n=6), low-tension glaucoma (n=4), angle recession (n=2), and POAG (n=32). Of these, 40 underwent combined cataract surgery and iStent placement. The remaining 4 had iStent placement only. Eleven subjects had previously undergone laser trabeculoplasty. Mean IOP decreased from 21.5 mmHg at baseline to 16.5 mmHg at 6 months post-procedure (p<0.0001). A significant decrease in eye drop use was also reported, from 2.3 drops at baseline to 0.59 drops post-procedure (p<0.0001). These findings are promising, but their use is limited by the lack of controls, blinding, randomization, and small study population.

Neuhann (2015) studied a consecutive 62 eyes of 43 subjects to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of the iStent Trabecular Micro-Bypass Stent. At the time of publication, 41 eyes had been studied for 3 years with the remainder continuing to be followed. Mean pre-operative IOP was 24.1 mmHg on a mean of 1.8 medications. Analyses of eyes with no secondary surgical intervention indicated an IOP of 14.8, 14.5 and 14.9 mm Hg at 12, 24 and 36 months post-operatively. Five eyes required additional surgery. Medications were eliminated in 74% of eyes at 36 months. There were no complications. Long-term results of iStent in combination with cataract surgery proved safe and effective in subjects with ocular hypertension or glaucoma as measured by a sustained reduction in IOP and medication use and an excellent safety profile through 3 years after surgery.

Malvankar-Mehta and colleagues (2015) conducted a meta-analysis on the impact of minimally invasive glaucoma surgeries, including the iStent, in lowering the IOP independent from lens extraction. Thirty-seven studies of 2495 eyes met inclusion criteria. A 4% IOP reduction from baseline occurred following phacoemulsification as a solo procedure compared to 9% for one iStent placement and phacoemulsification; 27% reduction followed two iStent placements and phacoemulsification. Additionally, compared to lens extraction alone, iStent with cataract removal showed a significant reduction in medication use with a standard mean difference of -0.65 (95% CI -1.18, -0.12). The authors concluded that "iStent with phacoemulsification significantly outperforms phacoemulsification alone."

The AAO (2015) practice guidelines for the management of POAG in adults reviews treatment options, with medical therapy being the most common intervention for the management of individuals with glaucoma to reduce the IOP 20%-30% below baseline, adjusting as needed based on disease course and severity. "Adequate treatment of glaucoma requires a high level of adherence to therapy. Frequently this is not achieved, and studies indicate relatively poor adherence to therapy." Authors summarized treatment options for glaucoma offering trabecular micro-bypass stent as an alternative treatment:

The iStent has received FDA approval for implantation in combination with cataract extraction in patients with mild to moderate OAG treated with topical ocular hypotensive agents. Several studies have reported a small reduction of IOP and glaucoma medical management therapy with the combined phacoemulsification and iStent placement compared with phacoemulsification alone. A decrease in IOP and topical ocular hypotensive agents has been described with the iStent alone in the treatment of secondary OAG. Recent studies suggest that implantation of multiple stents may provide better IOP lowering than a single stent. Lower rates of surgical complications have been reported with the iStent, and most commonly they relate to stent malposition or obstruction.

In summary, the iStent Trabecular Micro-Bypass Stent device is safe and effective for the management of individuals with mild to moderate glaucoma for which medical management (topical ocular hypotensive agents) has not been effective.

CyPass Micro-Stent system

On July 29, 2016 Alcon Laboratories, Inc. was granted premarket approval (PMA) for the CyPass Micro-Stent system, indicated for use in conjunction with cataract surgery for the reduction of IOP in adults with mild to moderate POAG. The FDA approval was based on data from the COMPASS trial, a multicenter, randomized control study that evaluated the safety and efficacy of the CyPass implant in lowering IOP in individuals with glaucoma who underwent phacoemulsification cataract surgery (Vold, 2016). Following the surgery, study participants were randomized in a 1:3 ratio of phacoemulsification alone (control; n=131) or supraciliary microstenting (CyPass) with phacoemulsification (n=374). Outcome measures included the percentage of subjects achieving ≥ 20% unmedicated diurnal IOP lowering versus baseline, mean IOP change and glaucoma medication use, and an assessment of ocular adverse event (AE) incidence through 24 months follow-up. The two study arms were clinically comparable at baseline. At 24 months, 60% of controls compared to 77% of CyPass recipients achieved at least 20% unmedicated IOP lowering from baseline (p=0.001). Mean IOP reduction was reduced 7.4 mmHg for CyPass recipients compared to 5.5 mmHg in controls (p<0.001). The mean medication use at follow-up was 67% lower in the treatment group (p<0.001) and 85% of treated study participants versus 59% of controls were medication free. No AEs occurred in the treatment group that were vision threatening. At 24 months, over 98% of study participants in both groups had achieved 20/40 best-corrected visual acuity or better. Authors concluded that the CyPass Micro-Stent system is safe with sustained reduction in IOP and medication use in mild to moderate POAG.

XEN Glaucoma Treatment System

On November 21, 2016 the XEN Glaucoma Treatment System (consisting of the XEN45 Gel Stent and the XEN Injector) was granted FDA clearance for the management of refractory glaucomas, including cases where previous surgical treatment has failed, cases of primary open angle glaucoma, and pseudoexfoliative or pigmentary glaucoma with open angles that are unresponsive to maximum tolerated medical therapy. The XEN stent is a 6 mm-long gelatin implant designed to be implanted with mitomycin C via an ab-interno approach across the anterior chamber angle, into the subconjunctival space. The unpublished pivotal trial (NCT 02036541) is a Phase 3, prospective, multi-center, single-arm, open-label study that enrolled individuals with refractory glaucoma who had previously failed filtering procedures, cilioblative procedures or maximally tolerated medical therapy. Inclusion criteria included 45 years of age or older, maximally-tolerated medicated IOP of at least 20 mmHg and equal to or less than 35 mmHg, visual field mean distance score of -3 dB or worse and Shaffer angle grade of at least 3 or higher. At 12 month follow-up, 52 individuals were available for analysis and the IOP was reduced by 25.1 (± 3.7) mmHg to 15.9 (± 5.2) mmHg. The FDA also considered unpublished data from a 2016 abstract presented at the American Society of Glaucoma's 26th annual meeting, and post-marketing data from the European Union (XEN FDA Label, 2016) . The clinical trials conducted were manufacturer-sponsored. At this time, there is insufficient evidence in the peer-reviewed literature on the safety and efficacy of this device to recommend use.

Non-FDA Approved Devices

Voskanyan and colleagues (2014) reported findings from a European, prospective, open-label study that evaluated the safety and IOP efficacy of two Glaukos Trabecular Micro-Bypass iStent® inject second generation devices in subjects with open-angle glaucoma (OAG). The study was comprised of 99 participants who underwent implantation of two iStent injects per eye using the G2-0 injector or the G2-M-IS injector, with 12-month data available in 93% of participants (n=92/99). The primary endpoint, IOP ≤ 18 mmHg at 12 months without medications was achieved in 66% of participants. Eighty-one percent of participants achieved a secondary endpoint, IOP ≤ 18 mmHg at 12 months regardless of medication. Limitations of the study include lack of a comparator group and long-term follow-up. At this time, Glaukos has not received approval from the FDA to market the iStent inject system in the United States.

A similar implant currently under study, the EyePass™ Glaucoma Implant (GMP Companies, Inc., Ft. Lauderdale, FL) is another anterior segment drainage device without an extraocular reservoir. This device has a bidirectional shunt that also diverts aqueous fluid from the anterior chamber directly into Schlemm's canal. According to experts in the field of glaucoma treatment, some of these newer devices and techniques may eventually surpass the results achieved with trabeculectomy, which is the current gold standard surgical treatment option for glaucoma. However, to date, there is insufficient scientific evidence to support the safety and efficacy of this new device still under study, currently the device has not been granted FDA approval to market in the United States.

This document is restricted to aqueous humor drainage devices without an extraocular reservoir. It does not address a variety of FDA-approved traditional aqueous shunting devices placed in the eye via either an anterior chamber or pars plana approach with tubes that communicate with a reservoir sutured to the sclera in the subconjunctival space. Although these devices have advantages of being less prone to infection and discomfort and are more amenable to contact lens wear than traditional trabeculectomy, their implantation is technically difficult and may cause diplopia, due to interference with the rectus muscles, and corneal damage. Examples include:

Background/Overview

According to the AAO (2015), glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide, with a total of approximately 8.4 million people blind as a result of glaucoma. In the United States, it is estimated that 2% of people over 40 have POAG. Glaucoma is a group of diseases, which can damage the eye's optic nerve and result in vision loss and blindness. POAG, the most common type of glaucoma, is associated with a buildup of aqueous fluid pressure within the eye, which can lead to visual field loss and optic nerve damage usually without any associated pain or discomfort. There is no visible abnormality in the anterior chamber angle; however, the aqueous fluid is unable to flow correctly.

In the management of POAG, the goal is to reduce the IOP to slow the development of optic nerve damage. The IOP can be reduced by medical treatment or surgery (alone or in combination). In POAG, IOP above 21 mmHg has been shown to increase rates of visual field loss. Presently, conventional management of the individual principally involves medication therapies to reduce elevated intraocular pressures in order to prevent or delay visual loss. Drug therapy may include alpha-agonist, beta-blockers, carbonic-anhydrase inhibitors, miotic agents, and prostaglandin analogs. When the maximum tolerated medical therapy fails to control progression of glaucomatous optic neuropathy, surgical care is considered the next treatment option. Surgical procedures include laser trabeculoplasty and incisional or filtering surgery, such as trabeculectomy or drainage implants.

The Ex-PRESS Glaucoma Filtration Device is a single-piece, stainless steel implant which reduces IOP by diverting excess aqueous fluid from the anterior chamber to a subconjunctival bleb rather than an extraocular reservoir. The device is designed to regulate intraocular pressure in eyes suffering from glaucoma.

The iStent Trabecular Micro-Bypass Stent is implanted inside the eye during cataract surgery, the anterior segment aqueous drainage device is a small L-shaped titanium device inserted through a small temporal clear corneal incision, bypassing the trabecular meshwork and placed in into Schlemm's canal at the lower nasal quadrant. This allows aqueous fluid from the anterior chamber to flow directly into the Schlemm's canal toward the episcleral drainage system, thus avoiding or bypassing the trabecular meshwork.

Definitions

Aqueous Humor: (vitreous humor/fluid): The clear aqueous gel that fills the space between the lens and the retina in the anterior chamber of the eye where it flows continuously in and out of the chamber and nourishes nearby tissues; this aqueous fluid leaves the chamber at the open angle where the cornea and the iris meet and flows through a spongy meshwork drain.

Glaucoma: A group of eye diseases characterized by an increase in intraocular pressure which causes pathological changes in the optic disk and typical defects in the field of vision.

Hypotony: This condition refers to abnormally low intraocular pressure of the intraocular fluid; this condition usually occurs as a complication of an underlying ocular disorder, such as glaucoma.

Intraocular pressure (IOP): The pressure within the chambers of the eye which is maintained by a balance between aqueous fluid secretion and fluid outflow; in glaucoma, defects that interfere with aqueous humor outflow lead to a rise in intraocular pressure resulting in degenerative compromise of optic nerve function known as progressive optic nerve atrophy and vision loss.

Schlemm's Canal: A circular canal in the eye that drains aqueous humor from the anterior chamber of the eye into the anterior ciliary veins.

Trabeculectomy: A surgical filtration procedure in which a portion of the trabecular meshwork is surgically removed through a superficial flap of sclera to lower the IOP by creating an alternate pathway for the aqueous fluid to flow from the anterior chamber to a bleb created in the subconjunctival space; this is currently considered the gold standard treatment for glaucoma that is refractory to medical management.

Coding

The following codes for treatments and procedures applicable to this document are included below for informational purposes. Inclusion or exclusion of a procedure, diagnosis or device code(s) does not constitute or imply member coverage or provider reimbursement policy. Please refer to the member's contract benefits in effect at the time of service to determine coverage or non-coverage or these services as it applies to an individual member.

When Services may be Medically Necessary when criteria are met:

CPT  
66183 Insertion of anterior segment aqueous drainage device, without extraocular reservoir; external approach [when specified as Ex-PRESS Glaucoma Filtration Device]
0191T Insertion of anterior segment aqueous drainage device, without extraocular reservoir, internal approach, into the trabecular meshwork; initial insertion [when specified as the iStent Trabecular Micro-Bypass Stent]
0376T Insertion of anterior segment aqueous drainage device, without extraocular reservoir; internal approach, into the trabecular meshwork; each additional device insertion [when specified as the iStent Trabecular Micro-Bypass Stent]
0474T Insertion of anterior segment aqueous drainage device, with creation of intraocular reservoir, internal approach, into the supraciliary space [CyPass system]
   
ICD-10 Procedure  
  For the following procedure codes when specified as Ex-PRESS Glaucoma Filtration Device, the iStent Trabecular Micro-Bypass Stent or the CyPass system:
08123J4 Bypass right anterior chamber to sclera with synthetic substitute, percutaneous approach
08133J4 Bypass left anterior chamber to sclera with synthetic substitute, percutaneous approach
   
ICD-10 Diagnosis  
H40.10X0-H40.159 Open-angle glaucoma
H40.50X0-H40.53X4 Glaucoma secondary to other eye disorders

When Services are Investigational and Not Medically Necessary:
For the procedure and diagnosis codes listed above when criteria are not met, and for all other diagnoses not listed.

When Services are also Investigational and Not Medically Necessary:

CPT  
0253T Insertion of anterior segment aqueous drainage device, without extraocular reservoir, internal approach, into the suprachoroidal space
0449T Insertion of aqueous drainage device, without extraocular reservoir, internal approach, into the subconjunctival space; initial device [XEN Gel Stent]
0450T Insertion of aqueous drainage device, without extraocular reservoir, internal approach, into the subconjunctival space; each additional device [XEN Gel Stent]
   
ICD-10 Diagnosis  
  All diagnoses
   
References

Peer Reviewed Publications:

  1. Arriola-Villalobos P, Martínez-de-la-Casa JM, Díaz-Valle D, et al. Mid-term evaluation of the new Glaukos iStent with phacoemulsification in coexistent open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension and cataract. Br J Ophthalmol. 2013; 97(10):1250-1255.
  2. Bahler CK, Smedley GT, Zhou J, Johnson DH. Trabecular bypass stents decrease intraocular pressure in cultured human anterior segments. Am J Ophthalmol. 2004; 138(6):988-994.
  3. Cheng JW, Ma XY, Wei RL. Efficacy of non-penetrating trabecular surgery for open angle glaucoma: a meta-analysis. Chin Med J (Engl). 2004; 117(7):1006-1010.
  4. Craven ER, Katz LJ, Wells M, et al. Cataract surgery with trabecular micro-bypass stent implantation in patients with mild-to-moderate open-angle glaucoma and cataract: two-year follow-up. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2012; 38(8):1339-1345.
  5. de Jong L, Lafuma A, Aguade AS, Berdeaux G. Five-year extension of clinical trial comparing the Ex-PRESS glaucoma filtration device and trabeculectomy in primary open-angle glaucoma. Clin Ophthalmol. 2011; 5:527-533.
  6. de Jong LA. The Ex-PRESS glaucoma shunt versus trabeculectomy in open-angle glaucoma: a prospective randomized study. Adv Ther. 2009; 26(3):336-345.
  7. Fea AM, Consolandi G, Zola M, et al. Micro-bypass implantation for primary open-angle glaucoma combined with phacoemulsification: 4-year follow-up. J Ophthalmol. 2015; 2015:795357.
  8. Fea AM. Phacoemulsification versus phacoemulsification with micro-bypass stent implantation in primary open-angle glaucoma: randomized double-masked clinical trial. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2010; 36(3):407-412.
  9. Fea AM, Belda JI, Rekas M, et al. Prospective unmasked randomized evaluation of the iStent inject® versus two ocular hypotensive agents in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma. Clin Ophthalmol. 2014; 8:875-882.
  10. Grover D, Kersten-Gomez I, Reitsamer H, Sheybani A. Describing the development of a minimally invasive collagen stent for treating glaucoma: first 975 eyes treated with the Xen Gel stent. Paper presented at: The 26th Annual AGS Meeting; March 3, 2016; Ft. Lauderdale, FL.
  11. Heijl A, Leske MC, Bengtsson B, et al. Reduction of intraocular pressure and glaucoma progression: results from the Early Manifest Glaucoma Trial. Arch Ophthalmol. 2002; 120(10):1268-1279.
  12. Hong CH, Arosemena A, Zurakowski D, Ayyala RS. Glaucoma drainage devices: a systematic literature review and current controversies. Surv Ophthalmol. 2005; 50(1):48-60.
  13. Jordan JF, Engels BF, Dinslage S, et al. A novel approach to suprachoroidal drainage for the surgical treatment of intractable glaucoma. J Glaucoma. 2006; 15(3):200-205.
  14. Malvankar-Mahta MS, Iordanous Y, Chen YN, et al. iStent with phacoemulsification versus phacoemulsification alone for patients with glaucoma and cataract: a meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2015; 10(7):e0131770.
  15. Maris P, Ishida K, Natland P. Comparison of trabeculectomy with Ex-PRESS miniature glaucoma device implanted under sclera. J Glaucoma. 2007; 16(1):14-19.
  16. Musch DC, Gillespie BW, Niziol LM, et al. Intraocular pressure control and long-term visual loss in the Collaborative Initial Glaucoma Treatment Study. Ophthalmology. 2011; 118(9):1766-1773.
  17. Neuhann TH. Trabecular micro-bypass stent implantation during small-incision cataract surgery for open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension: long-term results. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2015; 41:2664-2671.
  18. Patel I, de Klerk TA, Au L. Manchester iStent study: early results from a prospective UK case series. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol. 2013; 41(7):648-652.
  19. Samuelson TW, Katz LJ, Wells JM, et al. Randomized evaluation of the trabecular micro-bypass stent with phacoemulsification in patients with glaucoma and cataract. Ophthalmology. 2011; 118(3):459-467.
  20. Spiegel D, Wetzel W, Haffner DS, Hill RA. Initial clinical experience with the trabecular micro-bypass stent in patients with glaucoma. Adv Ther. 2007; 24(1):161-170.
  21. Vold S, Ahmed II, Craven ER, et al. Two-year COMPASS Trial results: supraciliary microstenting with phacoemulsification in patients with open-angle glaucoma and cataracts. Ophthalmology. 2016; 123(10):2103-2112.
  22. Voskanyan L1, García-Feijoó J, Belda JI, et al. Prospective, unmasked evaluation of the iStent® inject system for open-angle glaucoma: synergy trial. Adv Ther. 2014; 31(2):189-201.
  23. Zhou J, Smedley GT. A trabecular bypass flow hypothesis. J Glaucoma. 2005; 14(1):74-83. (Vendor sponsored: Glaukos Corp.)
  24. Zhou J, Smedley GT. Trabecular bypass: effect of schlemm canal and collector channel dilation. J Glaucoma. 2006; 15(5):446-455. (Vendor sponsored: Glaukos Corp.)

Government Agency, Medical Society, and Other Authoritative Publications:

  1. American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO). Primary open angle glaucoma. Preferred Practice Pattern. Revised November 2015. For additional information visit the AAO website: http://one.aao.org/CE/PracticeGuidelines/PPP.aspx?sid=ca9ec1b5-2567-4e85-96f6-b6540e5ac5a1.  Accessed on January 02, 2017.
  2. Burr J, Azuara-Blanco A, Avenell A. Medical versus surgical interventions for open angle glaucoma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;(2):CD004399.
  3. Glaukos Corporation. A study of the Trabecular Micro-bypass Stent in combination with cataract surgery in subjects with open angle glaucoma. NLM Identifier: NCT00323284. Last updated on March 24, 2016. Available at: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00323284?term=NCT00323284.&rank=1. Accessed on January 02, 2017.
  4. Hau S, Barton K. Corneal complications of glaucoma surgery. Curr Opin Ophthal. 2009; 20(2):131-136. Available at: http://journals.lww.com/co-ophthalmology/Abstract/2009/03000/Corneal_complications_of_glaucoma_surgery.13.aspx. Accessed on January 02, 2017.
  5. Minckler DS, Francis BA, Hodapp EA, et al. Aqueous shunts in glaucoma: a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Ophthalmology. 2008; 115(6):1089-1098.
  6. Minckler DS, Vedula SS, Li TJ, et al. Aqueous shunts for glaucoma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;(2):CD004918.
  7. National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE). Interventional procedure guidance 396. Trabecular stent bypass micro-surgery for open angle glaucoma guidance. May 2011. Available at: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ipg396/chapter/1-Guidance . Accessed on January 02, 2017.
  8. National Institutes of Health (NIH). The National Eye Institute (NEI). Statement on the findings of the Collaborative Initial Glaucoma Treatment Study (CIGTS). Updated June 2003. Available at: https://nei.nih.gov/news/statements/cigts . Accessed on January 02, 2017.
  9. Royal College of Ophthalmologists. Guidelines for the management of open angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. 2004 Available at: http://www.mrcophth.com/glaucoma2004.pdf. Accessed on January 02, 2017.
  10. Sarkisian, Steven R Jr. Tube shunt complications and their prevention. Curr Opin Ophthal. 2009; 20(2):126-130. Available at: http://journals.lww.com/co-ophthalmology/Abstract/2009/03000/Tube_shunt_complications_and_their_prevention.12.aspx. Accessed on January 02, 2017.
  11. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Blunt Tip Ex-PRESS™ Mini Glaucoma Shunt (Optonol, Inc., Kansas City, KS). Summary of Safety and Effectiveness. No. K030350. March 13, 2003. Available at: http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/cdrh_docs/pdf3/K030350.pdf. Accessed on January 02, 2017.
  12. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). CyPass® System  (Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Fort Worth, TX). July 29, 2016. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/medicaldevices/productsandmedicalprocedures/deviceapprovalsandclearances/recently-approveddevices/ucm513982.htm. Accessed on January 02, 2017.
  13. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Glaukos iStent Trabecular Micro-Bypass Stent (Models: GTS-100R, GTS-100L and inserter GTS-100i) (Glaukos Corporation, Laguna Hills, CA) Summary of Safety and Effectiveness. No. P080030. June 25, 2012. Available at: http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cftopic/pma/pma.cfm?num=p080030. Accessed on January 02, 2017.
  14. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). XEN Glaucoma Treatment System  (Allergan, Inc, Irvine, CA). Summary of Safety and Effectiveness. No. K161457. November 21, 2016. Available at: http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/cdrh_docs/pdf16/K161457.pdf. Accessed on January 02, 2017.
Websites for Additional Information
  1. National Eye Institute. Facts about glaucoma. Available at: http://www.nei.nih.gov/. Accessed on January 02, 2017.
Index

Anterior Segment Aqueous Drainage
Aqueous Drainage Implant/Shunt
CyPass Micro-Stent system
Ex-PRESS Glaucoma Filtration Device
EyePass Bi-Directional Glaucoma Implant
iStent Trabecular Micro-Bypass Shunt
Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma
Open-Angle Glaucoma
Secondary Open-Angle Glaucoma
XEN Glaucoma Treatment System

The use of specific product names is illustrative only. It is not intended to be a recommendation of one product over another, and is not intended to represent a complete listing of all products available.

Document History
Status Date Action
  07/01/2017 Updated Coding section with 07/01/2017 CPT changes.
Revised 02/02/2017 Medical Policy & Technology Assessment Committee (MPTAC) review. Added CyPass System, used in conjunction with cataract surgery, as a MN treatment to reduce intraocular pressure in adults with mild to moderate open-angle glaucoma when criteria met. Added CyPass System to INV/NMN statement for all other indications not listed above as medically necessary. Added the XEN Glaucoma Treatment System as INV/NMN as a method to reduce intraocular pressure for the treatment of glaucoma. Removed the CyPass System as an INV/NMN device when used as a method to reduce intraocular pressure for the treatment of glaucoma. Updated Description, Rationale, Background/Overview, Coding, Index and References sections.
  01/01/2017 Updated Coding section with 01/01/2017 CPT changes.
Revised 08/04/2016 MPTAC review. Clarified MN statement for the Ex-PRESS Glaucoma Filtration Device. Added MN statement for implantation of iStent Trabecular Micro-Bypass Stent system in conjunction with cataract surgery when criteria met. Added the iStent Trabecular Micro-bypass Stent to the INV/NMN statement. Revised INV/NMN statement for anterior segment aqueous drainage devices inserted internally or externally without an extraocular reservoir. Updated, Rationale, Background, References and Websites sections. Updated Coding section and removed ICD-9 codes.
Reviewed 08/06/2015 MPTAC review. Updated Rationale, References and Websites sections.
  01/01/2015 Updated Coding section with 01/01/2015 CPT changes.
Revised 08/14/2014 MPTAC review. Clarified medically necessary and investigational and not medically necessary statement addressing Ex-PRESS Mini Glaucoma Shunt, now known as the Ex-PRESS Glaucoma Filtration Device. Updated Description, Rationale, Background, References, Websites, and Index section.
Revised 11/14/2013 MPTAC review. Added investigational and not medically necessary statement for Ex-PRESS Mini Glaucoma Shunt. Updated Rationale, References and Website sections. Updated Coding section with 01/01/2014 CPT changes; removed code 0192T deleted 12/31/2013.
Reviewed 11/08/2012 MPTAC review. Updated Rationale, References and Websites.
Reviewed 08/09/2012 MPTAC review. Updated Description, Rationale, References and Websites.
Reviewed 08/18/2011 MPTAC review. Updated definitions, websites and references. Updated Coding section with 10/01/2011 ICD-9-CM changes.
Revised 08/19/2010 MPTAC review. Clarified Ex-PRESS Mini Glaucoma Shunt medically necessary statement. Updated rationale, definitions, index, websites and references.  Updated Coding section with CPT changes effective 01/01/2011.
Revised 08/27/2009 MPTAC review. A position statement has been added regarding the Ex-PRESS shunt now considered medically necessary when criteria are met. The position statement regarding the iStent device has been clarified and expanded to address anterior segment aqueous drainage implant/shunt devices without an extraocular reservoir as investigational and not medically necessary. The title has been revised for clarification to: Intraocular Anterior Segment Aqueous Drainage Devices (without extraocular reservoir). The Rationale, Definitions, and References have been updated to include information about other devices used in the treatment of glaucoma. Coding section was also updated.
Reviewed 05/21/2009 MPTAC review. No change to stance. References were updated.
New 05/15/2008 MPTAC review. Initial document development.